How soon are heart patients safely fit to fly?

plane-drawingby Carolyn Thomas     @HeartSisters

Five months after my heart attack, I boarded a plane from the West Coast of Canada bound for Rochester, Minnesota.  Considering that I’d suffered two horrific cardiac events on another long flight just five months earlier made this trip just a wee bit terrifying for me.

Only the reality that I was headed to the world-famous Mayo Clinic in Rochester helped propel me onboard. I told myself that if anything happened to me and my heart during this flight, the cardiologists at the Mayo Women’s Heart Clinic would know exactly what to do for me. If I survived the flight, that is . . .  

Like many freshly-diagnosed heart attack survivors, my fear of having a heart attack on a plane was very strong. (Note: many survivors experience a very strong fear of having another heart attack just walking down the street).

So being strapped into a metal box 35,000 feet up in the sky, hour after endless hour, inhaling stale air with low oxygen content, in a pressurized germ-infested environment, with reduced circulating oxygen levels in my blood, risking the onset of hypobaric hypoxia, and with no guarantee at all that my seatmate would be a board-certified cardiologist seemed just plain crazy.

But apparently there is now good news about heart patients and flying from the British Cardiovascular Society.

Most people with heart disease who are not critically ill can safely fly on commercial aircraft, according to a U.K. report.(1)  Lead author Dr. David Smith (Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust) explained it like this:

“The overwhelming conclusion is that the cabin environment poses very little threat. It’s not the flying that’s the problem for heart patients, but the stability or instability of someone’s underlying condition that indicates the probability of a spontaneous cardiac event occurring while they are in the air.”

The passengers who might feel some minor physical effects of low blood oxygen (hypoxia)  include those already at risk of:

  • angina
  • myocardial infarction (heart attack)
  • heart failure
  • abnormal heart rhythms

But according to Dr. Smith, the blood oxygen levels induced by flying “appear to have little or no adverse circulatory effects, certainly not for short- and medium-haul flights.”

However, some heart patients at high risk are advised to “defer travel” until their conditions are stable, including those:

  • having an ejection fraction <40%
  • showing signs and symptoms of poorly controlled heart failure
  • with unstable angina or uncontrolled arrhythmias
  • awaiting further investigation, revascularization, or device therapy

And here’s how soon after a cardiac procedure you are generally safe to fly:

  • After uncomplicated elective (non-emergency) cardiac catheterization (angioplasty, with or without stent implants), patients can fly after a few days.
  • If patients suffer from stable angina with infrequent attacks, they should be able to fly. It is safe to use nitroglycerin spray in a pressurized aircraft cabin.
  • Patients with pacemakersimplanted can fly after a few days, unless they have suffered a pneumothorax, in which case they should wait until two weeks after it has fully healed.*
  • Those with ICDs (Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators) can fly after a few days, with the added recommendation that they should not fly after the ICD has delivered a shock until the condition is considered stable again.*
  • Those who have experienced a heart attack (myocardial infarction) can fly after two weeks.
  • Those who have had coronary artery bypass grafts (open heart bypass surgery) can usually fly after about six weeks (longer if they have had pulmonary complications).

Generally speaking (and after chatting with your physician about your specific case), if you can walk briskly for 100 metres on the flat without being breathless or in pain, you can fly.

But even when your physician has officially given you the green light to fly again, remember that severe fatigue can continue to be a serious issue for heart patients long after the other physical effects of cardiac procedures have healed.

Anticipating this fatigue may influence your decision to request an airport wheelchair or a ride to connecting gates on the airline golf cart, and to limit the weight and size of your carry-on bag.

Please plan ahead and arrive at the airport significantly early for any flight to minimize rushing or stress. Warn the airline and/or airport authority of any requirements for assistance, including in-flight oxygen, well in advance of your departure date. Make sure you have an appropriate supply of prescribed medications to last your whole trip plus a clear list of the medications and doses. While you may not need an explanatory letter from your doctor regarding the condition, drugs, allergies and devices (e.g. a pacemaker or defibrillator), you might want to request this letter if you have a particularly complicated cardiac history. Some women have encountered alarmingly ignorant airport gate staff or onboard flight crews (see the Oregon woman’s story below, for example; she was ordered off her flight after boarding a United Airlines plane because she carried nitroglycerin in her carry-on bag, which the flight attendant deemed to mean she was unfit to fly).

The anxiety surrounding air travel can be debilitating even for non-heart patients. If fear of flying has ever been a serious issue even before your own cardiac event, it may indeed feel worse now.  Ask your own doctor about advice on taking a mild sedative such as Ativan just before you board the plane. And learn more about getting over that fear of flying.

For heart patients who sport implanted medical devices, it may be comforting to know that the amount of metal used in most implanted heart devices like pacemakers, heart valves or ICDs is very small, according to cardiologists at St. Jude Medical. It is usually not enough to set off airport security metal detectors; if it does, simply show security personnel your patient identification card. Passing through a metal detector should not hurt your device. However, do not linger near the security system arches or poles. Doing so may interrupt your therapy.

Dr. Clemens Jilek and his team of researchers from the German Heart Center in Munich recently did a study on 388 heart patients, published in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine.  They concluded that metal detector security screening appears safe for those with pacemakers or ICDs implanted.

* What about those new full body scans at airport security gates and people with implanted pacemakers or ICDs?  According to cardiologist Dr. Richard Fogoros, there are few if any controlled clinical studies or even written information about the safety of these full body scanners for heart patients:

“I called the technical support departments of two major pacemaker manufacturers. I was told that they regard the full body scanner as completely safe for those with implanted  pacemakers and ICDs, and this is what they tell patients and doctors when they call for advice (which apparently they do frequently, since there is no written advice anywhere).  I was told that:

  • 1) their engineers have determined it is extraordinarily unlikely that these scanners are capable of negatively affecting implantable medical devices
  • 2) many thousands of people with pacemakers and ICDs have used total body scanners over the past several years, and there has been no allegation of any problems.

“So, both engineering theory and a large volume of real-world experience indicates they are safe, according to them.

“There is no reason to believe that a full body scanner will affect a pacemaker or ICD, and medical device companies are willing to say that verbally (but not in writing).

“If you want to wait until some authority is willing to make a definitive written statement about this, you can opt for a pat-down instead when you go through airport security. Since this issue is in the hands of bureaucrats, however, don’t hold your breath waiting for a resolution.”

A serious health problem you may have also heard linked with air travel, particularly long flights, is deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and venous thromboembolism.

Although a long-haul flight doubles the risk of DVT, it is actually similar to that incurred during car, bus, or train travel for a similar period, the U.K. researchers state. And the absolute risk of DVT for a fit and healthy person is one in 6,000 for a flight of more than four hours, they note, pointing out that pilots are at no greater risk than the general population, a statistic that is not particularly comforting.

Now I have to worry not only about myself, but about my pilots. Why not take the advice of my heart sister Jaynie, who always harps at us to wear compression knee-high stockings while flying?

Dr. David Smith adds:

“Even those considered at high risk – those who have already had a DVT, recent surgery lasting more than 30 minutes, known thrombophilia, pregnancy, and those who are obese (BMI>30) – can still fly.”

There are some recommended common sense flight precautions for those at risk of DVT:

  • consume plenty of fluids
  • exclude caffeine and alcohol
  • wear compression stockings
  • take a dose of low-molecular-weight heparin (a blood thinner)
  • wear a MedicAlert bracelet or dogtag necklace at all times – VERY IMPORTANT!
  • talk to your doctor to confirm that your cardiac disease is stable
  • carry adequate supplies of all prescribed medicine
  • carry a copy of your medical history
  • carry emergency phone numbers for your doctor(s), next of kin, and destination contacts

Having memorized these precautions, you might want to also consider the alarming case of one Oregon heart patient who describes her “very interesting flight” to Rochester, Minnesota to see cardiologist Dr. Sharonne Hayes at the Mayo Women’s Heart Clinic. Here is the transcript of her complaint against Alaska Airlines filed with the FAA:

“I mentioned to the E/C flight attendant that I carry nitroglycerin for chest pain in my pocket should I request assistance, and that it was cautionary in nature only because I was traveling alone.

“The Head Flight Attendant ordered me off the flight because she ‘assumed’ that I was unhealthy. She required me to provide a doctors’ note clearing me to fly. She informed me that the FAA allows flight crew to decide who is fit to fly or not, and they can remove whomever they feel is unfit to fly.

“Alaska Airlines customer services representative and flight attendant refused to speak with my cardiologist who was wakened at 6:30am on a Sunday morning because I did not have the “requested” doctors note.

“I explained that the flight crew had no data to support their assumption that I was unfit to fly, nor did they request the other passengers to produce doctors’ notes.

“Alaska Airlines discriminated against me based on the fact that I carry nitro in my pocket. They created a very stressful environment and threatened to impair my ability to seek medical care at the Mayo Clinic. They humiliated me in front of a plane full of passengers.

“An air carrier may not discriminate against an otherwise qualified individual on the following grounds: 1) the individual has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. 2) the individual has a record of such an impairment. 3) the individual is regarded as having such an impairment.”


(1)  Smith D, Toff W, Joy M, et al. “Fitness to fly for passengers with cardiovascular disease. The report of a working group of the British Cardiovascular Society”. Heart 2010; DOI:10.1136/hrt.2010.203091.

NOTE FROM CAROLYN:   I wrote much more about the importance of self-care (and saying “No!”) in my book, A Woman’s Guide to Living with Heart Disease . You can ask for it at your local library or favourite bookshop, or order it online (paperback, hardcover or e-book) at Amazon, or order it directly from my publisher, Johns Hopkins University Press (use the code HTWN to save 20% off the list price).

 Q:   How did you prepare for your first flight after a cardiac event?

See also:

How soon are heart patients safely fit to drive?

Need a translator? Visit my patient-friendly, no jargon glossary of complex cardiology terminology

Why aren’t you wearing your medical I.D?

Hypervigilance: waiting for that second heart attack

Living with heart disease – and your whole family

If I’d had my heart attack decades ago . . .


7 thoughts on “How soon are heart patients safely fit to fly?

  1. I made sure all my meds were on my person. Had really no problem except for my oxygen level, stopped on descent on the flight back.
    I did have airport security give me pat down. No problem there, had a distant with wheel chair. Off and on the plane.

    Liked by 2 people

  2. How wonderful to see that Canadian health insurance covers everything! In contrast, the 3 EMTs + 2 firemen (ambulance and fire trucks are always together here in Virginia USA) who responded to my 911 call during a January 2015 heart attack cost me $650 out of pocket. So did the 2nd heart attack that hit 5 hour hours after discharge from the 1st one. So at 5 a.m. my living room is swarming with burly first responder dudes again. They were awesome AND racked up $1300 out of pocket in a 3 day span. Go Canada!!

    Liked by 2 people

    1. WOW, had you known in advance that you’d be calling them just FIVE HOURS post-discharge, perhaps you could have negotiated a bulk discount, Jaynie! Where I live (British Columbia, the west coast of Canada) there actually IS a charge for ambulance service ($50 if treated on scene; $80 if transported to hospital). If patients have extended health benefits coverage through work (as many of us do), ambulance service is generally provided free through that coverage. My understanding is that other provinces can charge more than BC does (in our next door province Alberta, for example, ambulance charges start at $250 if treated on scene and $385 if transported to hospital).


  3. Interesting topic. Probably not something a lot of people think about until they are presented with an impending flight.

    Unfortunately, we have had some interesting experiences. When my wife was sent out of province for heart surgery, it presented a predicament. Her cardiomyopathy and resulting reduced cardiac function presented a conundrum for her Drs as she had almost constant chest pain. Commercial airlines will not transport a passenger with chest pain.

    Furthermore, if the flight crew notice a passenger who does not look well, they may inquire, and if you state it is because of chest pain the plane (by policy) must be put down at the nearest site. You create a mid-air emergency. Not a desirable scenario.

    In our case, our Doctors chose to send us by air ambulance (Lifeflight). This meant we had a private jet take us with a medical crew on board. I had a lot of fun but I wish my wife could have been feeling better so she could have enjoyed the flight a little more. One week after her open heart surgery we flew home commercially with no issues, other than to use a wheelchair to transport her to the gate, which was graciously supplied by the airline with no issue.

    Liked by 2 people

      1. Yes it was…but that was the only part of our trip that was paid for by medicare. The balance of our stay was paid for by private insurance… hotel, meals, and our commercial flight home. In other words, get to know what kind of benefits you have. Carrying health insurance in Canada is a must. The rules surrounding what is covered by medicare and things that are not are nonsensical and not rooted in sound policy.

        Fun fact: our Lifeflight does double duty…when the plane is not used for medical transport, the plan is used by the Premier for government business.

        Liked by 1 person

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