As I’ve noted here previously, there were a number of very good reasons that I believed that Emergency Department physician who sent me home with an acid reflux misdiagnosis. Despite my textbook heart attack symptoms of central chest pain, nausea, sweating and pain down my left arm, these reasons included:
1. He had the letters M.D. after his name;
2. He misdiagnosed me in a decisively authoritative manner;
3. I wanted to believe him because I’d much rather have indigestion than heart disease, thank you very much;
4. The Emergency nurse scolded me privately about my questions to this doctor, warning me: “He is a very good doctor, and he does not like to be questioned!” (The questions I’d been asking included, not surprisingly: “But Doctor, what about this pain down my left arm?”);
5. Most of all, what I had always imagined a heart attack looking like (clutching one’s chest in agony, falling down unconscious, 911, ambulance, sirens, CPR) was not at all what I was experiencing. Instead, despite my alarming symptoms, I was still able to walk, talk, think and generally behave like a normally functioning person, i.e. one who is definitely NOT having a heart attack!*
So it all made sense to me as I was being sent home from Emergency that day, feeling very embarrassed because I had clearly been making a big fuss over nothing.
My experience, however, might have been what researchers in Ireland refer to as “slow-onset myocardial infarction”.
Dr. Sharon O’Donnell, lead author of a study published in the Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, interviewed heart attack survivors in Dublin between 2-4 days following their hospital admission. She explained in her paper that slow-onset MI is the gradual onset of relatively mild heart attack symptoms, while fast-onset MI describes the immediate onset of sudden, continuous, and severe heart attack symptoms, particularly chest pain. (1)
“Over 60 per cent of our study’s participants experienced slow-onset MI, but had expected the severe symptoms associated with fast-onset MI. The mismatch of expected and experienced symptoms for participants with slow-onset MI led to both their mislabeling of symptoms to a non-cardiac cause, as well as protracted help-seeking delays.”
Study participants who had experienced the more severe symptoms of fast-onset MI, however, quickly chalked up their symptoms to a cardiac cause, which meant significantly faster decisions to seek medical help.
This makes perfect sense. No wonder we wait far longer than we should in mid-heart attack when we’re experiencing non-severe or atypical cardiac symptoms. As Dr. O’Donnell explained:
“Educational information provided to the public needs to be reviewed. Slow-onset MI and fast-onset MI provide plausible definition alternatives, and possibly a more authentic version of real MI events than what is currently used. They also provide a unique ‘delay’ perspective which may inform future educational initiatives targeted at decision delay reduction.”
She also pointed out that both slow-onset and fast-onset presentations are associated with uniquely distinct behavioral patterns that significantly influence how long that important pre-hospital delay turns out to be. With slow-onset symptoms, patients can wait dangerously longer than they should (believing symptoms to be “nothing serious”) while in fast-onset, patients seek emergency help faster because severe symptoms convince them that “this IS serious!”
In a later follow-up study published in the Journal of Emergency Medicine, Dr. O’Donnell looked at the phenomenon of slow-onset symptoms among patients presenting to hospital with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) – a term used for any condition brought on by sudden, reduced blood flow to the heart muscle – including heart attack or unstable angina. (2)
“You’re in the right demographic for acid reflux!”.
The bottom line:
(1) O’Donnell, S. et al. Slow-Onset Myocardial Infarction and Its Influence on Help-Seeking Behaviors. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, August 2012. Volume 27 Number 4. Pages 334 – 344.
(2) O’Donnell, S. et al. Slow-onset and fast-onset symptom presentations in acute coronary syndrome (ACS): new perspectives on prehospital delay in patients with ACS. J Emerg Med. 2014 Apr 11; 46(4):507-15.
(3) S. Dey et al, “GRACE: Acute coronary syndromes: Sex-related differences in the presentation, treatment and outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndromes: the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events”, Heart 2009;95:1 20–26.
Q: Did you or somebody you care about wait too long before seeking help because of ‘slow-onset’ symptoms?
- How to communicate your heart symptoms to your doctor
- The symptomatic tipping point during heart attack
- “You’ve done the right thing by coming here today”
- The heart patient’s chronic lament: “Excuse me. I’m sorry. I don’t mean to be a bother…”
- Why we ignore serious symptoms
- Denial and its deadly role in surviving a heart attack
- ‘Knowing & Going’ – act fast when heart attack symptoms hit